1.1. The effect of environmental changes on geological forms
1.1.1. The effect of the climate change on surface forms
Project manager: Dr. Márton Veress
Measuring the depth of karst forms:
About a hundred dolinas were chosen from different karst areas of Hungary, the depth of these forms was known from topographical maps published in 1982. We measured the main characteristics of the dolinas (the size of catchment area, the type of the vegetation coveridge of the catchament area, properties of the sedimentary rock of the catchment area), which we use to reconstruct their alluviation processes during the last decades. After analyzing the alluviation processes we are going to deduce important data for the change of the frequency of extreme rainfalls in the region.
Measurement of channel (gulley) deepening, and headward erosion:
Intense rainfalls increase considerably the deepening and the headward erosion of channels in sedimentary rock. We chose our research area carefully to include channels developed recently (in 2009), here we selected and marked sections which we measured to construct precise cross-sections, the coordinates of the channel heads were also determined. By repeating the same procedure again we will be able to deduce data regarding the change of the shape and the deepening of channels. This data we will use to establish correlations between the frequency and the intensity of the known rainfall in the region and the measured channel deepening, and headward erosion, this will allow us to calibrate our “geological rainfall detector”.
Two research areas (Bozsoki Valley and the Szikla forrás Valley) were chosen in the Kőszegi Mountain. We selected and marked cross-section at three places of the channels developed in 2009 in the Bozsoki Valley, and chose a place where the development of the channel just started. Planimetric map of the channel part, where the cross-sections are located, was constructed; the cut parts, the alluviation parts were both indicated on the map. The depth of the channel developed in 2009 in the Szikla forrás Valley was measured at three places; these measurements will also be repeated again. Recently (2009) in an older channel a new channel developed near Szikla-forrás, here we could also distinguish cut parts and alluviation parts, and a planimetric map of the site was constructed. We classified the channels which developed on cut parts of older channel; the heads of the deeper channels were measured and marked on site.
Veress M.: A jég hatása a magashegységi karsztosodásra 100 éves a Jégkorszak konferencia Pécs, 2009. 10. 1-3.
1.1.2. Environmental changes and changes of water-courses
Project manager: Dr. Tóth Gábor
The bed reconstruction of the Mura river is the final mark of our project. In our work we search the relation between the precipitation data of the catchment area and the geomorphological activity of the river. Collection of the documents used during the further parts of the project was the goal of the first quarter. We have created a geoinformation database from the documents.
We have been two-times on the research area where we measured the coordinates of the orientation points.
Acquisition of map assemblage was established from the Institute of Cartographical Service of the Slovenia. In the same way we have received the hydrological maps from the West Transdanubian Hydrological Authority.
By the orthorectification of maps the digital mapping system was created.
The process of geodesic correction started with the terrain mapping.
Tóth G.: Reconstitution de l’évolution du lit du fleuve Mura (Hongrie-Slovénie) depuis 1843 Svájci Geomorfológiai Társaság konferenciája, 2009. 09. 3-5. Olivone, Svájc
Conferences and scientific trips sponsored by the project:
Research travel in Rhone valley with the professor of the University of Bordeaux
1.2. Estimating the effect of climate change on Hungarian shallow lake ecosystems using sediment-based paleoecological reconstructions
Project manager: Dr. János Korponai
The climate change scenarios conducted till today predict 1,5-2,5 °C and 0,5-1,5 °C increase in temperature during the summer and winter period respectively in the Carpathian Basin by 2030. This increase results in the northward expansion of the mediterranean climatic zone. Increasing water temperature will modify the aquatic ecosystems, after all climate change induces changes in lentic ecosystems. Past climatic changes can be detected based on the investigation of the ancient lentic flora and fauna. To be able to reach the right conclusions proper reference material, the so-called training dataset is necessary. Our research addresses the production of such a reference dataset.
To investigate climate change we need to find lakes representing different ecological conditions that cover the present and the expected climate characteristics. The training set is of crucial importance in the planned ecological reconstruction. Water and sediment samples will be taken from the reference lakes and the temperature profile, pH and conductivity will be measured on the spot. Water samples will be used in the laboratory to measure plant nutrient forms. Sediment samples will provide data for the occuring diatom and cladoceran species furthermore pollen investigations will be done. The resulting data with mathematical transformations (transfer functions) can be used for past environmental reconstructions distribution of species. The paleoecological reconstruction would be done only for the sediment core from the Zalavári pond of the Kis- Balaton to reduce costs.
During the present period we will choose the object lakes for the training set samplings and make arrangements of the sampling. It is necessary to involve colleagues in the work to be able to successfully conduct the plans:
The principal investigator of the sub-program is the hydrobiologist of the West Danubian District Water Authority (Nyugat-Dunántúli Környezetvédelmi és Vizügyi Igazgatóság) at the same time evidently we plan to conduct the water chemistry analyses in the laboratory of the NYUDUVIZIG in Keszthely. Master students will be also involved in the work.
Based on prior considerations six lakes in Hungary (Lake Fertő, Lake Velence, Lake Balaton, Barbacsi Pond, Lake Baláta, Lake Outer nearby Tihany) furthermore 3-6 lakes in Croatia have been chosen for sampling. By the end of this period of the program the right coopeartion partners in Croatia will be chosen, we get in contact with them and the final decision about the lakes to be sampled in Croatia will be made based on the recommendations of the croatian partners.
1.3. Studies on paleogeographic changes based on the exposures of the high bluff along the Danube
Project manager: Dr. Éva Kis
Our investigations are an attempt to reconstruct a paleogeographic trend to comprise the whole project through providing a long-term framework. It is aimed to present paleogeographic conditions in the central part of the Carpathian basin and to draw conclusions for the trends of climate conditions in the present and future.
Our studies are aimed at drawing conclusions about paleogeography (paleoclimate, paleotopography) and landform evolution for the vicinity of the exposures, on the basis of stratigraphy and granulometric analyses of the environmentally representative loess sections along the high bluff of the Danube. Sedimentological parameter values provide opportunities for the presentation of the alternating climate fluctuations with cool and warm spells during the past 1–2 million years. Based on the indicator values of the loess–paleosol sequence marking changes in paleoclimate current and future trends can be established.
In accordance with the schedule of the project the research strategy was worked out and the programme outlined in the first phase of six months. The stratigraphic description of the Paks exposure was made ready, laboratory analyses were completed and litostratigraphic values established.
As a result in the lowermost part of the exposure and in the surrounding areas red soils and red clays were found so the sequence is to indicate climate change over the past one million years. 1 Ma ago the climate was subtropical then it had turned Mediterranean, whereas the more recent hundred thousand years were represented by alternating coolings or glaciations and warmings or interglacials.
For the time being we are in a period of warming up that started 11,650 years ago; the maximum temperatures are over and currently there is a spell of cooling down.
Kis É.: Szintek a közép-európai löszökben. A jégkorszaki klímaváltozás kutatása Penck-Brücknertől napjainkig (1909-2009) 100 éves a Jégkorszak c. konferencia,
Pécs, 2009. 10. 1-3.